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Report on the confirmation of the effectiveness of the Functional Water Emulsion Fuel (report)
March, 2010
In Descentralised Generation Newspaper, eBunsangata Hatsuden Shimbunf
By Yoshitoshi, Takano ‚–ì‰À•q

Operation test of a Diesel electric generator with the emulsion fuel

About the emulsion fuel

Due to the exaggerate increase of price in petroleum price, the Diesel electric generation for permanent use type, has risen its generation cots and is losing the economic competitiveness.
In addition, due to the recent manifestation of the global warming problem, it is in demand the material reduction of carbon in the fuels, the CO2 saving features, and the replacement to a fuel with as least as possible carbon content.
This is also true with fuels of petroleum origin, it is in demand a technological development that makes use of it, while seeking high efficiency utilization, its carbon content lowering.
As the carbon lowering technology, what comes to our mind is the emulsion fuel technology, that mixes the bio-mass fuel, or the water.
Recently, there are moments in which a ewaterf with special function is presented and introduced, and among those that is being as efunctional waterf, there is the eSôseisui Waterf of Fukai Environmental Research Institute.

The potential of the emulsion fuel that utilises functional water

The emulsion fuel, formerly captured the attention of the public as a technology that reduces the emission of NOx exhaust gases, and have been effectuated a diversity of research and development. Technically it was put into practice, but the actual situation is that because of its durability (resistance to corrosion), decrease in output power, and the cost increase due to amplification of auxiliary equipments, there was not a wide diffusion of use.
Nevertheless, as it can be considered as possible to achieve large effects on the reduction of fuel consumption and the reduction of CO2, by utilising a efunctional waterf different than a conventional water, we decided to plan an operation test utilising a Diesel electric generator in practice.
Of the functional water (Sôseisui Water), according to the explanation of Fukai, contains large amount of the ionising state H3O2-(H2O+OH), hence its capacity to decompose oil is larger than conventional water, so it can be obtained functions like positive effects in the washing.
Because of this reason, the fuel emulsified by the mix of oil and Sôseisui Water can be used as a fuel with more calorific performance than the emulsion fuel of the mix of conventional water and oil.

Confirmation of the emulsion fuel

Fukai states that he has confirmed with combustion experiments that the emulsion fuel utilising Sôseisui Water can be utilised effectively as the fuel for boilers.
In that, when we requested confirmation to Fukaifs side, about the effectiveness in the use as the fuel for Diesel generator, as a fuel for electric generation, could not obtain a clear response, we decided to effectuate a practical proof test borrowing an apparatus for the production of Sôseisui Water.

Functionment test with the Diesel electricity generation apparatus

Of the test, the operation test as effectuated with the cooperation of eIshikawa Dieself (city of Chiba) who dedicates to the maintenance service of Diesel electric generators installations, after we borrowed the apparatus.
In the operation test, it was confirmed the operating situation of the engine, with the method of exchanging during the operation, the fuel with light oil exclusively, and the fuel emulsified to light oil a 30% of Sôseisui Water.
The operation test was effectuated, utilizing a fictional load apparatus for the electricity generation.
Below we will report on the situations during the operation test.

About the results on the operation test of the emulsion fuel load


On 18 of November, at the plant of Ishikawa Diesel (city of Chiba), it was effectuated the load operation test of the emulsion fuel utilizing a Diesel electric generator.
The emulsion fuel, was produced with the combination of the converted functional water (Sôseisui Water) and the light oil with the proportion of3 to 7 (additionally as the link oil, 1% of vegetable oil indicated by Fukai Environmental Research Institute).
The Diesel electric generator, was utilized the elaborated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, model PG-55 (fabricated in 1990, rating power in the emergency 48kVA/50Hz,200V).
The supply of the fuel was configured by two lines, the light oil and the emulsion fuel, and in the middle of the supply conduct form the fuel tank to the engine, it was attached a mechanism to make possible the change of the fuel.
The supply of the fuel was configured by two lines, the light oil and the emulsion fuel, and in the middle of the supply conduct form the fuel tank to the engine, it was attached a mechanism to make possible the change of the fuel.
Of the load apparatus, we utilised the type of 100kW class of the electric heating model (of the fabrication of Koken Co., Ltd.).

Load test

Assuming the 80% of the rating power for emergency as the rating power for ordinary use, we realised a load operation test up to the rating power of ordinary use (30.7kW).
With the fuel of 100% of light oil, started the machine and realised the load test up to 30kW, by increasing the load power by 5kW between each power value of the test, and it was effectuated the confirmation of the output power.
After that trial, it was changed the fuel to 100% of emulsion fuel, and in the similar way, it was effectuated the load test with each 5kW of power value of increase. In this case, the operative functioning was effectuated without problem up to 25kW, but with the load of 30kW, the engine stopped.
After that event, it was increased the revolution of the engine by about 10% (frequency of electricity generation 53.0Hz) and was attempted to effectuate again, but in a similar way the engine stopped with the load of 30kW (It was confirmed that up to 28~29kW was possible an operation with no problems).

Results of the load test

As result, being an emulsion fuel utilising functional water, same combustion power (heat production) similar to light oil, was not able to confirm.
The light oil sufficed the performance of the load test with around 32kW, established as the rating power for ordinary use, in this way it was confirmed the result that the emulsion fuel does not have the same power as the light oil.
By the other side, as it was also confirmed that the emulsion fuel was able to resist to the load as 10% lower than the rating power for ordinary use 31kW (29kW), it showed the possibility of the availability to operate with no problem, if it is the utilisation in the 10% lower than the rating power of the electric generator. (The method of utilising, defining as the rating power output, around 90% of the rating power for the ordinary use when utilising the emulsion fuel.).

On the second load test

Taking into account the results mentioned, it was decided to effectuate the load test for the second time, in the 1st of December.
In the second test, will be more centrally focused the rate of fuel consumption.
As the method of test in concrete, it was determined that for a constant time span (for 15 minutes, or for approximately 30 minutes), it will be effectuated a load test for about 25kW (80% of the load for the rating power for ordinary use), and will be compared the fuel consumption of the case of 100% light oil and the case of 100% emulsion fuel.
In the results of fuel consumption quantity comparison, it will be confirmed how much more the emulsion fuel consumption will be comparing to that of light oil, to effectuate the comparison. (If it appears that it is 30% of more amount, it would be saying that it can be expected a reduction effect in fuel although using it as emulsion fuel).

Tasks to be pending for the futuret

It is certain that with the emulsification the power lowers down. Recognising this fact, it will be analysed if it will be possible to sell as the fuel apparatus, balancing the points such as the possibility to expect fuel cost reduction and the CO2 reduction effects.
It will be analysed, if it is not possible to make the fabricants of electric generator installation sell the electric generators that use emulsion fuel as the indicated fuel by the fabricant.

About the results of the second combustion load test of the emulsion fuel

The Second Load Test

On 1st of December it was effectuated for the second time the load test with the cooperation of Kôken.
The objectives of the second load test, is to compare the fuel consumption quantity that was unable to confirm in the first time test.
It was utilised the same machine than the first time PG-55, it was effectuated respectively the operation for 15 minutes with the load of 20kW, and the comparison of the fuel consumption quantity.
The load of 20kW is, if we suppose that the rating power for the ordinary use as around 30kW, the load operation of about 60~65%, and this made us expect that it would provide the date close to the practical utilisation reality of the electric generator of ordinary use.
The calculation of the fuel consumption quantity, was calculated by comparing the weight of the fuel before the beginning of the operation, with the weight of the fuel after the termination of the operation.

Test results

It was effectuated the operation load test, and it was obtained the results as the following. From the results of the test operation, the consumption quantity of the light oil was of 3.0 kg (17 minutes of operation).
From the results of the test operation, the consumption quantity of the emulsion fuel was 3.5 kg (15 minutes 30 seconds of operation).
By the calculation, it was obtained the fuel consumption quantity correspondent to 15 minutes of operation.

Fuel consumption quantity

  Fuel consumption quantity (kg) Fuel consumption quantity (litres) Rate of consumption (light oil 100)
Light oil 100% 2.65 3.11 100
Emulsion fuel 3.39 3.57 114.8
* It was converted from the real measured values, the fuel consumption quantity (weight) after the 15 minutes of operation.
* The volume was calculated dividing it by the specific gravity.
Are obtained the results from the light oil, 2.65 kg, and from the emulsion fuel, 3.39 kg.
If we calculate, utilising the specific gravity (light oil 0.85, emulsion fuel 0.95, as measured at the date of the report), the quantity of the fuel consumption, we obtain that
  • Light oil, 3.11 litres
  • Emulsion fuel, 3.57 litres
It was obtained the result that in the fuel consumption quantity of 15 minutes of operation, the emulsion fuel has it for 14.8% more than the light oil.

Recapitulation of the test results

As seen from the test results, It was confirmed that it is possible to operate the electric generator, utilising the emulsion fuel (functional water 30%, light oil 70%, vegetable oil 1%), with the load rate of more than the 60%.
It was identified, that in case of the emulsion fuel, the fuel consumption quantity will be in comparison to light oil, approximately 15% more.
Comparing to the operation with 100% of light oil, the consumption quantity of light oil can be reduced by approximately 20% (70 x 115-100 = -19.5) * The fuel with 70% of light oil will increase for 15%, but as the increased portion is composed of light oil 7: water 3, the correspondent to light oil increase would occupy 10.5%.

Light oil saving effects with the emulsion fuel

  Light oil quantity in the fuel % Fuel consumption quantity (rate) of the 15 minutes of operation (= light oil 100) Light oil necessary for 15 minutes of the operation of (light oil 100)
Light oil 100% 100 100 100
Emulsion fuel 70 114.8 804

In case of assuming that the fuel consumption quantity, the emulsion fuel has it for 20% more, the light oil saving quantity would be approximately 15%.

Conclusions from the test results

In the emulsion fuel of light oil mixing 30% of functional water (Sôseisui Water), there is the possibility of reducing the consumption quantity of light oil for 20%.
In that case, as it is observed the decrease of output power in comparison to 100% of light oil (more than around 10%), it will be necessary to operate in a state in which the rating poser of the electric generator is lowered.
It is expectable that the machine can resist to the ordinary operation of higher than around the 50~60%.

The possibilities that can be thought from the test results

When we suppose that it is possible to obtain the effects as in the experiments, we can think of the following possibilities:
  • As in the emulsion fuel of 30% of water, the light oil consumption quantity can be reduced by 20%, it will be possible to reduce the fuel cost
  • It can be expected the reduction effect of the CO2 (by approximately 20%)
  • The CO2 reduced quantity can be expected to become a valuable when the emission rights transaction begins.

Points that should be further confirmed

The confirmation if it can be used the emulsion fuel as the fuel for electric generators
  • Repetitive verification of the test results
  • Confirmation with the long term load operation
  • Confirmation with the long term load operation
  • Potentials when the proportion of the mix of water in the emulsion fuel
Ishikawa Diesel, where the load test of the Diesel electric generator apparatus was effectuated (city of Chiba).
To the right of the picture it can be seen the load test machine loaded to the car.
The emulsion fuel utilised in the operation load test, second time.
Heat discharging module of the load test apparatus, class 100kW PG-55, and to the front, pparatus generator of Sôseisui Water.

PG-55 utilised in the load test. To the left, control module, to the right, engine module.

Fuel connection change module, when supplying the emulsion fuel from exterior.

Interior of PG-55, to the right is the control apparatus

The emulsion fuel that was utilised, in the load test, first time.

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